Short answer is yes.
Things to consider,
Can the wires be detached from the light fixture leaving them long enough to attach to new devices? Code dictates that the wires entering the box be a certain length. It is possible to extend the wires in the box.
Mounting new box. Looks like you might be able to put a 90⁰ connector on the end of the conduit(pipe?) And mount the box next to it on the wall. You could then mount a second box next to it for a light.
Will the current circuit handle the load? Check breaker rating and see what else is running on the circuit. In my area lighting circuits are often 15 amp and outlets are 20. But not always. You don’t want to do all the work and then blow the breaker when you plug something in and have all the lights in the house go out.
Finally have you considered a socket adapter? You can buy a device that screws into the light socket with 2 outlets on the side and a pull string for a light socket on the end. Screw it in, screw the bulb back into the end, plug stuff in and go.